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See DC Comics * List of DC Comics characters

Alex Ross poster
Alex Ross poster
Variant cover art for Justice League of America #12. Art by Michael Turner.
Variant cover art for Justice League of America #12. Art by Michael Turner.
Cover to Justice League of America #1. Art by Mike Sekowsky.
Cover to Justice League of America #1. Art by Mike Sekowsky.

For the animated television series, see Justice League (TV series) or Justice League Unlimited. For the live-action television pilot, see Justice League of America (TV movie).

The Justice League, sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short, is a DC Comics superhero team.

First appearing in The Brave and the Bold #28 (1960), the League originally appeared with a line-up that included Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, Aquaman and the Martian Manhunter. However, the team roster has rotated throughout the years to include such recognizable characters as Green Arrow, Atom, Hawkman, Black Canary, Captain Marvel, Plastic Man and dozens of others. Throughout the years, various incarnations or subsections of the team have also operated as Justice League America, Justice League Europe, Justice League International, Justice League Task Force, and Justice League Elite.

Various comic book series featuring the League have remained generally popular with fans since inception because, in most incarnations, its roster includes DC's most popular characters. The League concept has also been adapted into various other entertainment media, including the classic Saturday morning Super Friends animated series (1973-1986), a lesser known live action television movie, and most recently the successful animated series Justice League (2001-2004) and Justice League Unlimited (2004-2006).

Contents

Publication history

Silver and Bronze Age / Justice League of America

The Brave and the Bold #28: Debut of the Justice League. Art by Mike Sekowsky and Murphy Anderson.
The Brave and the Bold #28: Debut of the Justice League. Art by Mike Sekowsky and Murphy Anderson.

Having successfully re-introduced a number of their Golden Age superhero characters (Flash, Green Lantern, etc.) during the late 1950s, DC Comics asked writer Gardner Fox to re-introduce the Justice Society of America. Fox, influenced by the popularity of the National Football League and Major League Baseball, decided to change the name of the team from Justice Society to Justice League."League was a stronger word, one that the readers could identify with because of baseball leagues" The Justice League of America debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 (1960), and quickly became one of the company's best-selling titles. Fox wrote virtually all of the League's adventures during the 1960s, and artist Mike Sekowsky pencilled the first five years.

As with the Justice Society, the concept of the Justice League was simple: to include all of DC's most popular characters in one book (hence the original lineup included Superman, Batman, Aquaman, the Flash, Green Lantern and Wonder Woman). JLA's early success was indirectly responsible for the creation of the Fantastic Four, and by extension the entire Marvel universe. In his autobiography Stan Lee relates how, during a round of golf, DC publisher Jack Liebowitz mentioned to Marvel-Timely owner Martin Goodman how well DC's new book (Justice League) was selling. Later that day Goodman told Lee to come up with a team of superheroes for Marvel; Lee and Jack Kirby produced the Fantastic Four.Lee, Stan and George, Mair (2002) Excelsior! The Amazing Like of Stan Lee. ISBN 0-684-87305-2

The Justice League operated from a secret cave outside of the small town of Happy Harbor, Rhode Island. Teenager Snapper Carr tagged along on missions, and was both the team's mascot and an official member. Snapper, noted for speaking in beatnik dialect and snapping his fingers, helped the League to defeat giant space starfish Starro the Conqueror in the team's first appearance. In Justice League of America #77 (December 1969), Snapper was tricked into betraying the cave headquarters' secret location to the Joker, resulting in his resignation from the team.

Satellite years

Justice League Satellite

In need of a new secure headquarters, the Justice League moved into an orbiting "satellite" headquarters in Justice League of America #78 (February 1970). Through this period, the membership was limited to the seven founders along with Green Arrow, Atom, Hawkman, Black Canary, Phantom Stranger, Elongated Man, and Red Tornado. The League's twelve-member limit (sometimes explained as a "no duplication of powers" policy) was conceded (in Justice League of America #161) to have been simply a charter provision about numbers, once the League had formally removed the limitation and admitted Hawkwoman and hoped to admit more members. (Indeed, through this period, several League members challenged and joked about the notion that they shared skills and talents, for example, with speed races between Superman and Flash, and Hawkman's use of archery in combat.) The policy change allowed Zatanna and Firestorm to be admitted as well.

Those involved in producing the Justice League of America comic during the 1970s include writers Gerry Conway, Cary Bates, E Nelson Bridwell, and Steve Englehart, while Dick Dillin primarily handled the art chores. Justice League of America had a brief spike in popularity in 1982 when artist George Pérez stepped in following Dillin's death, but the commercial success was short-lived.

Detroit

The Detroit based team. Cover to Justice League of America #238 by Paris Cullins.
The Detroit based team. Cover to Justice League of America #238 by Paris Cullins.

In 1984, in an attempt to emulate the success of DC's most successful comic at that time, The New Teen Titans, DC editorial had most of the regular members replaced by newer, younger characters. DC also moved the team from its satellite headquarters into a base in Detroit, Michigan. This move was highly unpopular with readers, who dubbed this period of time the "Justice League Detroit" era. The major criticism was that this Justice League was filled with second-rate heroes. Created by Conway and artist Chuck Patton, the team is initially led by Aquaman and features Justice League veterans Zatanna, the Martian Manhunter and the Elongated Man, but the majority of the stories focus on newly recruited heroes Vixen, Gypsy, Steel and Vibe. Zatanna, Aquaman and the Elongated Man soon left the series, leaving behind minor characters. Even the return of Batman to the team in Justice League of America # 250 could not halt the decline of the series."Sales dropped by tens of thousands, very little favorable fan response for the new team" The final issue of the original Justice League of America series, issue #261 by Writer JM DeMatteis and artist Luke McDonnell, culminated with long-time Justice League enemy Professor Ivo's murders of Vibe and Steel at the onset of DC's Legends miniseries.

Modern incarnations

Justice League International

Cover to Justice League #1. Art by Kevin Maguire.
Cover to Justice League #1. Art by Kevin Maguire.


The 1987 company-wide crossover "Legends" featured the formation of a new Justice League. The new team was dubbed "Justice League" then "Justice League International" (JLI) and was given a mandate with less of an American focus. The new series, written by Keith Giffen and JM DeMatteis with art by Kevin Maguire (and later Adam Hughes), added quirky humor to the team's stories. In this incarnation the membership consisted partly of heroes from Earths that, prior to their merging in the Crisis on Infinite Earths, were separate. The initial team included Batman, Black Canary, Blue Beetle, Captain Marvel, Doctor Light (a new Japanese female character, not the super-villain who had appeared previously), Doctor Fate, Martian Manhunter, Mister Miracle, and Guy Gardner; and soon after inception, added Booster Gold, Captain Atom, Fire (formerly known as the Global Guardians' Green Flame), Ice (formerly known as the Global Guardians' Ice Maiden), and two Rocket Reds (one was a Manhunter spy), and one was Dimitri Pushkin. The series' humorous tone and high level of characterization proved very popular (although it should be noted that the characterization of Booster Gold was wholly unfaithful to that in his own title, and thus distasteful to some fans of the character), but writers following Giffen and DeMatteis were unable to capture the same balance of humor and heroics, resulting in the decline of the series' popularity. New writers gave the storylines a more serious tone. By the mid- to late-1990s, with the series' commercial success fading, it was eventually cancelled, along with spin-offs Justice League Europe, Extreme Justice, and Justice League Task Force.

JLA

The low sales of the various Justice League spinoff books prompted DC to revamp the League as a single team (all the various branch teams were disbanded) on a single title. A Justice League of America formed in the September 1996 limited series Justice League: A Midsummer's Nightmare by Mark Waid and Fabian Nicieza). In 1997, DC Comics launched a new Justice League series titled JLA, written by Grant Morrison with art by Howard Porter and John Dell.

This series, in an attempt at a "back-to-basics" approach, used as its core the team's original and most famous seven members (or their successors): Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Aquaman, Flash (Wally West), Green Lantern (Kyle Rayner), and the Martian Manhunter. Additionally, the team received a new headquarters, the "Watchtower", based on the Moon]. Morrison introduced the idea of the JLA allegorically representing a pantheon (gods)|pantheon of gods, with their different powers and personalities, incorporating such characters as Barbara Gordon (Oracle), John Henry Irons (Steel), and Plastic Man.

Since this new league included most of DC's most powerful heroes, the focus of the stories changed. The League now dealt only with Earth-shattering, highest-priority threats which could challenge their tremendous combined power. Enemies faced by this new JLA included an invading army of aliens, a malfunctioning war machine from the future, a horde of renegade angels, a newly reformed coalition of villains as a counter-league, mercenaries armed with individualized take-down strategies for each superhero, various cosmic threats, and the enraged spirit of the Earth itself. In addition, because almost all of the members had their own comics, the stories were almost always self-contained, with all chapters occurring within JLA itself and very rarely affecting events outside of that series. Developments from a hero's own title (such as the new costume temporarily adopted by Superman) were reflected in the League's comic book, however.

The new approach worked, and JLA quickly became DC's best-selling title, a position it enjoyed for several years. Despite this, DC did not create continuing spinoff series as it had done before. Instead, a large number of miniseries and one-shots featuring the team were released. One spin-off team, the Justice League Elite was created following the events of JLA # 100, but their series was limited to 12 issues, and the team appeared only once after the title ended its allotted run. JLA's popularity was also able to launch the critically acclaimed JSA series, which was relaunched as Justice Society of America to coincide with the new Justice League of America book.

In 2005, a story arc by Geoff Johns and Alan Heinberg called "Crisis of Conscience" (JLA #115-119) depicts the dissolution of the Justice League of America as the breakdown of trust shown in the 2004 limited series Identity Crisis reaches its zenith. At the end of the arc, Superboy-Prime destroys the Justice League Watchtower. JLA, one of several titles to be cancelled at the conclusion of the Infinite Crisis storyline, ended with issue #125.

52

In 52 Week 24, Firestorm recruits a group to reform the Justice League. It consists of Firehawk, Super-Chief, Bulleteer and Ambush Bug. They fight a deranged Skeets who takes Super-Chief's powers and kills him as well as numerous persons given powers by Lex Luthor's Everyman Project. Afterwards Firestorm breaks up the team.

Also in the series, Luthor's new Infinity, Inc was informally referred to as a "Justice League" in solicitations and on covers.

Justice League of America (vol. 2)

One year after the events of Infinite Crisis, Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman reunite in the Batcave to re-form the League in Justice League of America #0, the kick-off for a new series by Brad Meltzer and Ed Benes. They select Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Black Canary, Red Arrow (Green Arrow's former sidekick), Red Tornado, Vixen, Black Lightning, and Hawkgirl. The three founders built a new headquarters for the Justice League, consisting of two buildings linked by a transporter. The first site is The Hall, located in Washington D.C. at the location of the Justice Society of America and the All-Star Squadron's former headquarters, paid for by Batman and designed by Wonder Woman and John Stewart. The Hall, functioning as the League's embassy on Earth, features an extensive collection of rare historical items of significance to the League and its forebears, including several pieces of deactivated weaponry and technology from former heroes and villains. The transporter leads both to the Batcave and to the League's new orbiting satellite headquarters in space: the new Watchtower. Black Canary is elected as the first official Chairwoman. In issue #10, the Flash (Wally West) is brought back from another dimension, and then inducted into the Justice League. Dwayne MacDuffie took over the writing job with #13. At the end of issue #15, Firestorm is "invited" to join the League so that someone with his powers but lack of experience will not be "unsupervised".

Various origins of the Justice League

In 1962's Justice League of America #9 Earth was infiltrated by the Appelaxians, competing alien warriors sent to see who could conquer Earth first to determine who will become the new ruler of their home planet. The aliens' attacks drew the attentions of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, the Flash (Barry Allen), Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Aquaman, and the Martian Manhunter. While the superheroes individually defeated most of the invaders, the heroes fell prey to a single competitor's attack; only by working together were they able to defeat the competitor. For many years, the heroes heralded this adventure as the event that prompted them to agree to pool resources when confronted with similar menaces.

Years later, however (as revealed in Justice League of America #144), Green Arrow uncovered inconsistencies in League records and extracted admissions from his colleagues that the seven founders had actually formed the League after the Martian Manhunter was rescued from Martian forces by the other six founders, along with Robin, who did not join the League because of his young age. Green Lantern participated in this first adventure primarily as Hal Jordan, though he finally appeared as Green Lantern when the group formalized their agreement, news of which they mutually suppressed because of anti-Martian hysteria (mirroring the real-world backdrop of Martian scares and anti-communist hysteria of the 1950s). Because the League members had not revealed their identities to each other at the time, they did not realize that Jordan and Green Lantern were one and the same. While most subsequent accounts of the League have made little mention of this first adventure, the animated Justice League series adapted this tale as the origin of the League as well.

1989's, Secret Origins #32 updated the Justice League of America's origin for Post-Crisis continuity. Differences included the inclusion of Black Canary as a founding member and the absence of Batman, Wonder Woman and Superman (though Batman and Superman had cameo appearances they did not join the League yet, but Bruce Wayne was secretly funding them). Additionally, while the confident and good-looking Hal Jordan served as the public face of the Justice League, this iteration of the League's origin cast the Flash as the team's unofficial leader, since it was the methodical Allen who usually came up with the plans that best utilized everyone's powers. 1998's JLA: Year One limited series, by Mark Waid, Brian Augustyn and Barry Kitson, further expanded upon the Secret Origins depiction.

In 1994's Justice League Task Force #15, during Zero Hour, an unknown superhuman named Triumph appeared. It was revealed that, in a plotline never explored before, Triumph was revealed to have been a founding member of the Justice League, serving as their leader. On his first mission with the fledgling Justice League, Triumph seemingly "saved the world", but was teleported into a dimensional limbo that also affected the timestream, resulting in no one having any memory of him. This was to explain how all the heroes ended up in Washington for their first meeting.

In 2006's Infinite Crisis #7, the formation of "New Earth" (the new name for the Post-Crisis Earth) resulted in the retcon that Wonder Woman was a founding member of the Justice League in the early days. In Brad Meltzer's Justice League of America (vol. 2) #0 (2006), it was also revealed that both Superman and Batman were founding members as well. No official changes in continuity for Hawkman and Hawkgirl's involvement with the team have been confirmed. 52 Week 51 confirmed that the 1989 Secret Origins and JLA: Year One origins are still in canon, with Superman, Batman and Wonder Woman joining the team (consisting of Aquaman, Black Canary, Flash, Green Lantern, and Martian Manhunter) with founding members' status shortly after the group's formation.

Related series

Formerly Known as the Justice League

See Super Buddies

In 2003, Giffen, DeMatteis, and Maguire returned with a separate limited series called Formerly Known as the Justice League with the same humor as their Justice League run, and featuring some of the same characters in a team called the "Super Buddies" (a parody of the Super Friends). A follow-up limited series, entitled I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League, soon was prepared, although it was delayed due to the events shown in the Identity Crisis limited series, but was eventually released as the second arc in JLA: Classified. The Super Buddies consisted of Blue Beetle, Booster Gold, Captain Atom, Fire, Mary Marvel, the Elongated Man with his wife, Sue Dibny, Maxwell Lord, and L-Ron. The second story arc of JLA: Classified focuses on the Super Buddies in a humorous story that features Power Girl, Guy Gardner, and Doctor Fate.

JLA/Avengers

In 2004, George Pérez and Kurt Busiek came out with a JLA/Avengers crossover, an idea that had been delayed for 20 years for various reasons. In this limited series, the Justice League and the Avengers were forced to find key artifacts in one another's universe, as well as deal with the threats of villains Krona and the Grandmaster. A key moment in League history occurs in this series, when the Avenger Hawkeye becomes the first Marvel Comics character to be inducted into the Justice League.

JLA: Classified

In 2004, DC began an anthology series titled JLA: Classified, which would feature rotating writers and artists producing self-contained story-arcs starring the JLA. JLA Classified is in official continuity; the stories take place somewhere in the team's past. The first arc features Grant Morrison's return to the team with artist Ed McGuiness and a storyline featuring a "proto-universe" that was first seen in Morrison's JLA run as well as his then-upcoming Seven Soldiers limited series. Keith Giffen and J.M. DeMatteis then did the sequel to "Formerly Known as the Justice League" entitled "I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League". Then Warren Ellis, Gail Simone, and Howard Chaykin wrote the following stories with other writers taking over after that. Dan Jurgens and Dan Slott produced the six part bi-weekly "4th Parallel" storyline which runs through issues #32-36, and introduces a new villain named the Red King. Creators rumored to do upcoming arcs include Tom Mandrake and Garth Ennis. Garth Ennis had stated that his final Hitman story would be published in JLA Classified, but it has since been published as the JLA/Hitman two part mini-series.

Justice

In October 2005, DC began publishing Justice with stories by Jim Krueger and Alex Ross and art by Ross and Doug Braithwaite. In this new out-of-continuity maxi-series, it is not a single foe that they face, but rather the combined forces of the most infamous criminal masterminds ever to grace DC's pages, e.g. Lex Luthor, Riddler, Joker, Brainiac, Black Manta, etc. These villains have all shared the same nightmare of the Earth's destruction, and the shared nature of this vision leads them to believe it is a premonition of an actual impending event, one which they believe the Justice League is responsible for. Instead of using their combined strength for destructive ends, the new criminal mega-team is using their unified power to attain humanitarian aid in the form of large floating cities in which the impoverished people of Earth can live. They also use the power of rhetoric to criticize the Justice League for not having done enough humanitarian work themselves prior to this. In truth, this is a prelude to a coordinated attack on the Leaguers, which involves learning their secret identities, physically attacking them on multiple fronts, and unleashing microscopic mechanical organisms on a number of them that cause those infected to become murderous psychotics. With help from Doc Magnus and the Metal Men, the Leaguers resolve to build special armor that will protect them from the mechanical worms. During the battle, John Stewart manages to erase knowledge of the League's secret identities from the villains' minds, and Brainiac, who had taken control of all of Earth's nuclear weapons, in a ploy to restore the glory of his planet Colu on Earth, is defeated.

Related teams

  • The Justice League occasionally has worked with its predecessor, the Justice Society of America. Between 1963 and 1985, a popular annual series of team-ups between the two teams to tackle some sort of mutual threat was seen. They often encountered other worlds in the Multiverse, such as Earth-S, home to Captain Marvel and Shazam. Now that the teams inhabit the same Earth, the JLA and JSA have Thanksgiving (United States)|Thanksgiving dinner together each year, with the location varying year to year between their respective headquarters. A crossover between the two teams in 2007 involved the Legion of Super-Heroes .
  • A team originally formed by the teen sidekicks of a few Justice League members (and thus known as a "Junior Justice League" of sorts) is called the Teen Titans.
  • In light of the increased UN scrutiny of super-powered teams after the events of Infinite Crisis and 52 (comic book) , Batman has re-formed his own team of Outsiders, to work under his direction tackling politically sensitive problems that might prove problematic were the Justice League of America to become directly involved.
  • A team formed by some rejects from the Legion of Super-Heroes that are native to Earth as shown in Legion of Super-Heroes # 859. This "Justice League of Earth" has twisted the legacy of Superman to promote their xenophobic agenda. Members include Earth Man, Spider Girl, Tusker, Storm Boy, Golden Boy, Eyeful Ethel and Radiation Roy.
  • In the final issue of 52 a new multiverse was created, containing 52 worlds, some of which have alternate versions of the justice league. On Earth 11, a world where all the genders are reversed form the characters of New Earth, There is a Justice League Led by Superwoman and Batwoman, members include Kylie Rayner, Olivia Queen, a Blue Beetle who is similar in costume and power to Jaimie Reyes (however dialogue suggests it may be a female version of Ted Kord) a Flash (who's blonde hair suggests she may be a female Barry Allen,) Aquawoman (a female Joseph Curry), Atom (who's costume resembles Ryan Choi's) and Plastic Woman. Female versions of Red Tornado and Martain Manhunter are also members as well as a male version of Black Canary. Wonderman was also a member but was kicked off the team for killing Maxine Lord.

Justice League parodies/references

  • The Seven in The Boys.
  • The Just-Us League in Tiny Toon Adventures.
  • The Freedom League in Histeria!
  • The Guardians of the Globe in Invincible.
  • Squadron Supreme as a whole was created as an homage to the Justice League of America.
  • League of Honor in The Pro
  • Knights of Justice and Round Table of America (RTA) by Big Bang Comics and published by Image Comics, recreate the Golden Age and Silver Age of comics.
  • The Allies, from Image Comics.
  • Honor Guard from Astro City.
  • Apollo's and Midnighter's original Stormwatch team was an homage to the Justice League.
  • Planetary contains numerous references to JLA members. The first issue prominently features an homage to the Justice League. Planetary/Authority: Ruling The World features a JLA as though created by H. P. Lovecraft.
  • The Justice Friends in Dexter's Laboratory (although the characters who made up the Justice Friends more closely resembled Captain America (Major Glory), Hulk (Krunk), Thor (Marvel Comics)|Thor (Valhallen) and other members of the Avengers).
  • The Planetary Brigade by Keith Giffen and JM DeMatteis is a League parody. The cover of #1 parodies the traditional first issue covers from their time on the real League.
  • In the Futurama episode Less Than Hero, after Fry and Leela receive powers from Dr. Flim Flam's Miracle Cream, along with Bender, they form the New Justice Team; whose enemy is the Zoo-Keeper (also the name of a DC villain). The first battle between the New Justice Team and the Zoo-Keeper is an obvious parody of the 1960s Batman television series.
  • The Justice Ducks (or "Just-Us-Ducks") team in the comedic Disney cartoon Darkwing Duck is a team of super heroes (not all of them ducks, which makes the "Just-Us-Ducks" name all the more amusing) that along with Darkwing Duck protect the city of St. Canard.
  • The Freedom League, in the Freedom City campaign setting for the Mutants and Masterminds role-playing game, is an homage to the Justice League.
  • On Spongebob Squarepants they had the I.J.L.S.A. (the International Justice League of Super-Acquaintances).
  • The Drawn Together episode "Ghostesses in the Slot Machine" features a superhero team called the League of Heroes.
  • The original and the 2003 animated series of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles both feature a parody of the Justice League called "The Justice Force." The Justice Force is composed of parody characters from several different comic series.
  • The Underground episode 8 parodies the Justice League, with names like Supra-Man, Man Bat (and his Manmobile), Green Lighthouse, along with a Wonder Woman reference. Spider-Man is the only non-JLA member there, besides the main parody character, Super N-Word.
  • Bang Cartoons have had six episodes to date of "The Justice Guys"; a superhero team based on topical NFL players and coaches. Mainstays of the group include Bill Cowher as Spitball , Tom Brady as The Dynamic Dimple, Donovan McNabb as Chokemaster or Chokey McPukington, Peyton Manning as Commercial Man, Aaron Brooks as Captain Useless, Jeff Garcia has had several different characters, including the Cleveland Steamer, The Velvet Lion, and the Liberty Belle. In various adventures they have tackled the nefarious herpes spreading Ron Mexico, rescued Matt Leinart from Paris Hilton's cooch, and recently saved Matt Millen on Halloween.
  • Smallville At the end of the episode in which the young Aquaman visits Smallville, he invites Clark to join the Junior Lifeguard Association. Clark laughingly tells him that he is not ready to join the JLA quite yet

Awards

The original Justice League of America series has won:

Bibliography

  • Silver Age Justice League of America

This series has been collected in the following:

# Title Material collected
1 Justice League of America Archives volume 1 Brave and the Bold #28–30, Justice League of America #1–6
2 Justice League of America Archives volume 2 Justice League of America #7–14
3 Justice League of America Archives volume 3 Justice League of America #15–22
4 Justice League of America Archives volume 4 Justice League of America #23–30
5 Justice League of America Archives volume 5 Justice League of America #31–38, 40*
6 Justice League of America Archives volume 6 Justice League of America #41–47, 49–50*
7 Justice League of America Archives volume 7 Justice League of America #51–57, 59–60*
8 Justice League of America Archives volume 8 Justice League of America #61–66, 68–70*
9 Justice League of America Archives volume 9 Justice League of America #71–80
*omitted issues featured reprints of material from earlier Archives.
  • JLA #1-125 (January 1997 - February 2006)

This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:

# Title Material collected
1 New World Order JLA #1-4
2 American Dreams JLA #5-9
3 Rock Of Ages JLA #10-15
4 Strength In Numbers JLA #16-23, JLA Secret Files #2, Prometheus One-shot
5 Justice For All JLA #24-33
6 World War Three JLA #34-41
7 Tower of Babel JLA #42-46, JLA Secret Files 3, JLA 80-Page Giant 1
8 Divided We Fall JLA #47-54
9 Terror Incognita JLA #55-60
10 Golden Perfect JLA #61-65
11 The Obsidian Age (Book 1) JLA #66-71
12 The Obsidian Age (Book 2) JLA #72-76
13 Rules Of Engagement JLA #77-82
14 Trial By Fire JLA #84-89
15 The Tenth Circle JLA #94-99
16 Pain Of The Gods JLA #101-106
17 Syndicate Rules JLA #107-114 and a story from JLA Secret Files 2004
18 Crisis Of Conscience JLA #115-119
19 World Without A Justice League JLA #120-125
  • Justice League of America vol. 2 #1-onwards (August 2006-onwards)

This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:

# Title Material collected
1 The Tornado's Path Justice League of America #1-7
2 The Lightning Saga Justice League of America #0, #8-12, Justice Society of America #5-6

In other media

Television

Justice League of America has been adapted for television numerous times.

Animation

Cartoon Network's Justice League
Cartoon Network's Justice League
  • The first animated appearance of the Justice League was in the 1967 television series The Superman Aquaman Hour of Adventure. The team appeared in only three segments of the run of the show.
  • The longest-running version of the Justice League was the loosely adapted series called the Super Friends, which ran in various incarnations from 1973 to 1986.
  • The Justice League make their first appearance in the DC Animated Universe in "The Call," a two-parted episode of Batman Beyond. It portrayed a futuristic version of the team, referred to as "Justice League Unlimited," or "JLU" for short. The lineup consisted of an aging Superman, a brand new Green Lantern, Big Barda, plus new characters; Aquagirl (Aquaman's Daughter), Micron, and Warhawk. (Which is later revealed to be the son of John Stewart and Hawkgirl)
  • Cartoon Network's Justice League series debuted in 2001 and lasted for two seasons. Although not the Justice League's first appearance in the DC Animated Universe, it was their first chronological appearance. In July 2004, the series was retitled and revised for its third season as Justice League Unlimited. Both of these were extensions of the DC Animated Universe, continuing the continuity begun by Batman: The Animated Series, Superman: The Animated Series, and Batman Beyond.
  • In the two-part fourth season finale of The Batman, titled "The Joining", Batman allied with Martian Manhunter against aliens known as "the Joining." At the end of the second episode, J'onn contacts Batman and asks him to join his group, prompting Batman to remark that J'onn has formed "quite a league." The members of the "League" featured in this sequence were Green Lantern, Green Arrow, Hawkman, and the Flash. Information released for the shows fifth season indicate that the League will continue to play a role in the show.Characters and elements that have been put forth are Superman, Aquaman, and a headquarters combining elements of the Hall of Justice from Super Friends and the Watchtower from Justice League.

Live action

  • Legends of the Superheroes was a two-part special that adapted the Justice League that appeared in the 1970s. It featured Adam West, Burt Ward and Frank Gorshin returning to their roles from the 1960s live-action Batman television series: Batman, Robin, and the Riddler respectively. Other heroes portrayed on the show included Black Canary, Captain Marvel, Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Huntress and more.
  • The "League" from the live action television pilot of Justice League of America.
    The "League" from the live action television pilot of Justice League of America.
    A series pilot for Justice League of America was produced in 1997, but failed to sell. The pilot used less well-known characters to avoid the licensing issues surrounding Batman, Superman and Wonder Woman. The characters used included the Martian Manhunter, the Guy Gardner Green Lantern, Fire, Ice, the Barry Allen Flash, and the Ray Palmer Atom set against a version of the Weather Wizard.
  • A "Justice League" as featured in the Smallville Season 6 episode Justice.
    A "Justice League" as featured in the Smallville Season 6 episode Justice.
    Smallville featured a version of the Justice League in its sixth season episode "Justice". The members of the team were drawn from versions of DC Comics heroes that had previously appeared in the show: "Impulse" from the season four episode "Run"; "Aquaman" from the season five episode "Aqua"; "Cyborg" from the season five episode of the same name, and "Green Arrow" who had been appearing as a regular character through the sixth season. The episode had the team temporarily recruiting main characters Clark Kent, who Green Arrow dubs "Boy Scout", and Chloe Sullivan, who acts as the team's advisor through a computer network under the codename "Watchtower".
    The online spin-off series Smallville Legends: Justice & Doom follows the exploits of Oliver Queen's proto-Justice League. Episode one suggests an unknown connection with Dr. Virgil Swann. In the picture from left to right: Impulse, Green Arrow, Clark Kent, Aquaman, and Cyborg.

Video games

  • As well as several video games based on its animated incarnation the Justice League has appeared in two video games titled Justice League Task Force, released in 1995 for the Sega Genesis, and Justice League Heroes, released in 2006 as a cross platform game.

Film

Live-action

On February 22, 2007, Warner Bros. hired Kieran Mulroney and Michelle Mulroney to write a treatment for a potential Justice League movie. No announcement was made on the characters, actors, or crew involved. They handed in their script by June that year. In September, word broke that Warner Brothers, happy with Mulroney's script, was moving ahead on the project and George Miller was announced as the director. The film features Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, Aquaman and the Martian Manhunter. Warner Bros. has put their Justice League plans at a higher priority than a proposed sequel to Superman Returns.

In October, 2007, Miller announced auditions for the leading roles in the film, indicating that he had no interest in established actors for the parts, as he was "looking for actors who can grow into their super-roles". The film is currently slated for a 2009 release date.

In November, 2007, entertainment websites reported that Australian supermodel Megan Gale had been chosen to play Wonder Woman. In December, 2007 it was reported that Adam Brody had signed to play The Flash and relatively unknown actor Armie Hammer is to play Batman. However as of January 2008, no official casting announcement had yet been made by Warner Bros.

In January 2008, Warner Bros. placed the film on hold and allowed the cast's options to lapse. Production is likely to commence in the latter half of 2008. Warner Bros. cited problems in obtaining tax relief in time for filming, and also felt that the script required further work.

On January 17, 2008, Variety reported that Australian tax breaks were not the true cause for the film to be put on hold, but rather creative differences between director George Miller and Warner Bros. studios.

From February 2007 until April 2008, the project was subject to many rumours before eventually being put on an indefinite hiatus; in a recent interview, producer Joel Silver stated that Justice League "has been tabled." In August 2008 director George Miller was quoted saying "the flick's production, initially planned for Oz, has been moved offshore, with a plan to resume filming next year." However, on August 22, The Wall Street Journal reported that Warner's new plan is to release four individual solo movies within the next three years before doing a multiple character movie, much like rival Marvel is reportedly doing with their Avengers film. While Warner Bros. Pictures Group President Jeff Robinov confirmed that one of those films will be a Superman reboot, it is likely that among the other three, there will be a sequel to the successful Batman movie The Dark Knight as well as two movies introducing fresh DC Comics characters to the big screen. It has since been confirmed that the other two movies will be Jonah Hex and Green Lantern.

Direct-to-video

Justice League: The New Frontier is a direct-to-video animated film adaptation of popular DC Comics storyline DC: The New Frontier. The film will be written by Justice League writer Stan Berkowitz, with Darwyn Cooke serving as story and visual consultant. Justice League: The New Frontier will be released on DVD, HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc in the United States on February 26th, 2008. It will contain both widescreen and full screen aspect ratios. The Official Justice League: The New Frontier Movie site is http://www.warnervideo.com/jlnewfrontier/.

Image:Newfrontier.jpg

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